Sangtam (sang1321-1)

Dialect: Trongar

Coupe, Alexander. Prestopped bilabial trills in Sangtam. 2015.

Consonants (30)

p t tʙ̥ tʙ̥ʰ ʈɻ̥ ʈɻ̥ʰ c k ʔ
tsʰ ts tʃʰ
(f) (v) s ʃ x
m n ɲ ŋ
ɹ j h

Vowels (6)

i u
e o

Tones (3)

˥ ˧ ˩


The retroflex stops are given as ʈʵ ʈʵʰ. In _Grammaticalization processes in the languages of South Asia_, Coupe describes these as "retroflex plosive phoneme[s] with a rhotacized release", and in "Why are Tibeto-Burman languages so typologically diverse?" (also the source of the vowel and tone inventories presented here, although there Sangtam is given with /z/ and no glottal stop), he presents palatograms demonstrating that they have a sub-laminal active articulator.

Allophonic rules