Kusunda (kusu1250-1)

Watters, David E.. Notes on Kusunda Grammar: A Language Isolate of Nepal. 2006. hh:g:Watters:Kusunda

Consonants (32)

p b t d k g q ʔ
tsʰ ts dzʱ dz (tʃ)
s (χ) ʕ
ʕ̃
m n (ȵ) ŋ
j w
l
ɾ

Vowels (6)

i u
e ə o
a

Diphthongs (5)

ei̯ əi̯ əu̯
ai̯ ao̯

Syllabic consonants (1)

Notes

/ʕ ʕ̃/ are given as /ɢ ɴ/, but are described as being realized as pharyngeals: "In Kamala’s speech, [ɢ] and [ɴ] have virtually been lost, being replaced by compensatory pharyngealization on the preceding vowel and a lowering of pitch levels. In fact,these are the primary auditory cues to their presence. The presence of [ɴ] is signalled additionally by nasalization on the affected vowel. In Gyani Maiya’s speech, the historical underpinnings for these consonants are a little easier to perceive, sometimes _almost_ surfacing in careful speech."

The 'palatal' consonants are laminal; the relevant distinction seems to be between apical and laminal. These are given here as palatoalveolars, although the source uses the IPA palatal series.

Allophonic rules