Kölsch (kols1241-1)

Gussenhoven, Carlos; Peters, Jörg. A tonal analysis of Cologne Schärfung. 2004.

Consonants (21)

p b t d k g
ts
f s z ʃ {ʒ} x
m n ŋ
ʋ j h
l
ʀ

Vowels (20)

i y u
e ø øː o
ɛ ɛː œ œː ɔ ɔː
a

Diphthongs (6)

ou̯
ɛi̯ œy̯ ɔi̯ ɔu̯
ai̯

Tones (1)

˥

Notes

/ʋ j h/ can't appear in coda. /ŋ/ can't appear foot-initially. Kölsch has a shift of g > ʀ / V[long -front]_ə, g > j otherwise, t d n > k g ŋ / V[long +high]_ with concomitant vowel shortening.

The tonal contrast only exists in "words whose stressed syllable contains at least two sonorant moras": Vː, VV̯, VN, Vl, or Vʀ.

The tonal analysis is difficult; the important part is that there's a contrast between tone and tonelessness.

Allophonic rules