Bai (cent2004-13)

Dialect: Jianchuan

Edmondson, Jerold A.; Esling, John H.; Shaoni, Li. Jianchuan Bai. 2020.

Consonants (22)

p t k
tsʰ ts tɕʰ
f v s ɕ x ɣ
m n ŋ
j w
l

Vowels (15)

ꭒ̃
i ɯ ɯ̃ u
e o
a ɑ ɑ̃

Diphthongs (1)

ɑo

Tones (8)

˥ ˥̠ ˧ ˧̠ ˧˥̠ ˧˩̠ ˧˩̤ ˨˩̠

Notes

/ꭒ/ "may be realized as a syllabic [v̩], as an approximant [ʋ͡ʊ] with raised-back vowel quality especially in nasal contexts, or as a syllabic nasal, e.g. as [ɱ] especially when the rhyme is nasal with no consonant onset, or as [ŋ] when the initial consonant is nasal".

The rising diphthongs are interpreted here as /j w/+V sequences. /w/ is not given in the source inventory.

Vowel reduction to schwa exists under certain conditions, specifically "in the second syllable of words where that syllable bears a particle relationship to the first syllable".

Allophonic rules